The origins of the modern Thermos flask can be traced back to the laboratory of Sir James Dewar, a 1800s Scottish scientist, where he tried out low-temperature materials. Producing liquid oxygen at temperatures below -183 C, the situation of storage proved particularly challenging and in 1892 Dewar developed his very own solution, the Túi Giữ Nhiệt Du Lịch.
His invention was made up of two glass-walled chambers separated by a vacuum, which prevented air currents from moving heat in or out as well as a silver coating made a reflective layer to minimize additional transfer of warmth by radiation. Dewar built on his sub-zero expertise, becoming the first person to produce liquid and solid hydrogen and after that to co-invent cordite, a smokeless gunpowder. Eventually knighted in 1904 in recognition of his significant contributions to science, the full potential of his vacuum flask had yet to be realised.
Meanwhile, Rheinhold Burger, among Dewar’s former pupils, realised that this vacuum flask might have commercial applications. He improved on the fragile design by enclosing the glass chamber in a robust metal casing, secured with protective rubber mountings and in 1904 he sold the concept to some German company of glassblowers. Such a novel invention deserved an impressive name as well as a competition was soon launched to discover one. The eventual winner, a resident of Munich, could never have guessed that his choice would still be a household name today. Derived from the Greek word for heat, “therme”, the Thermos flask had arrived.
Initially, production proved slow and dear as each glass vessel was hand-blown by skilled craftsmen and only only a few flasks may be completed in a day. In spite of this Thermos expanded, becoming a worldwide concern as well as in 1911 a London-based subsidiary made a significant breakthrough within the mechanisation of flask production. Output increased, prices fell and also the Vali Khung Nhôm was a must-have item using its miraculous claim to keep fluids hot for round the clock or cold for three days.
An intensive marketing campaign declared it “the bottle of the twentieth century made for up-to-date people” and “absolutely essential for each and every modern household from Pole to Pole.” Endorsed by Earnest Shackleton on his journey to the Antarctic and also the Wright Brothers in their aeroplane, the Thermos was adopted many famous expeditions, increasing its status much more.
As the flask increased in popularity, new items became available including the classic pint-sized “Blue Bottle” and the “Jumbo Jug,” a gallon-sized jar for storing food. The creation of stronger Pyrex jars in 1928 led to the roll-out of huge 28 gallon containers. These were found in shops as frozen treats cabinets or store frozen fish although commercial refrigeration took over inside the 1930s.
World War II brought big changes for your Thermos Company in Britain. Almost all its resources were directed towards military demands since the vacuum flask became standard wartime issue. It has often been claimed that each time a thousand bomber planes went out on a raid, over 10,000 vacuum flasks went along with them. A former pilot recalls how provisions were scarce but, “my kit always consisted of Thermos flasks of tea and coffee and packs of sandwiches.”
Even today, it appears to be valued by servicemen, worldwide. A soldier, recently on duty in Afghanistan, describes how the Russians customise their Jeeps. “Commanders make them plush -fitting curtains, quilted seat covers, fans and drinks cabinets (always containing a Thermos flask of black tea).” After the Second World War production refocused on civilian requirements and ynohag population seemed keen to renew its acquaintance with all the pint-sized miracle.
Already established being a domestic favourite for the storage of food and drink, the đồ Bịt Mắt Ngủ had wider implications for science, medicine and technology along with its list of applications continued to cultivate from the second half of the century. Its insulating properties proved critical in the field of medicine because it provided an excellent medium for that transport of insulin, human tissue samples and eventually donor organs. Vacuum flask technology has also been placed on aircraft instrumentation, weather detection equipment and is also used in the nuclear power industry and international Space programmes.
In a rapidly developing world, this innovative product has worked hard to take care of current trends and establish itself as being a 20th Century icon. As cheap flights made travel more accessible and new technology triggered extreme sports, the introduction of the very first stainless-steel vacuum bottle in 1966 ensured the flask could fulfill the demands of the new generation of adventurers. With environmental issues on the agenda today, the most obvious economical benefits may hold the key to its survival for another century.